A study on the fungal rhinosinusitis Causative agents symptoms and predisposing factors

Ebrahim Taghian, Sayed Hamidreza Abtahi, Abdolrasoul Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa Hashemi, Kazem Ahmadikia, Somayeh Dolatabadi, Rasoul Mohammadi


Background: In natural conditions, inhaled fungi are considered a part of the microflora of nasal cavities and sinuses. However, subsequent to the protracted use of corticosteroids and antibacterial agents, suppression of the immune system by chemotherapy, and poor ventilation, these fungi can become pathogens. Fungal colonization in the nose and paranasal sinuses is a prevalent medical issue in immunocompetent and  mmunosuppressed patients. In this study, we aimed to categorize fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) among immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients and identified the etiologic agents of disease by molecular methods.

Materials and Methods: A total of 74 cases were evaluated for FRS. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed for sampling.The clinical samples were examined by direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide 20% and subcultured on Sabouraud DextroseAgar with chloramphenicol. Polymerase chain reaction sequencing was applied to identify causative agents.

Results: Thirty?threepatients (44.6%) had FRS. Principal predisposing factors were antibiotic consumption (n = 31, 93.9%), corticosteroid therapy (n = 22, 66.6%), and diabetes mellitus (n = 21, 63.6%). Eyesore (n = 22, 66.6%), proptosis (n = 16, 48.5%), and headache (n = 15, 45.4%) were the most common clinical manifestations among patients. Rhizopus oryzae (n = 15, 45.4%) and Aspergillus flavus (n = 10, 30.3%) were the most prevalent fungal species.

Conclusion: Diagnosis and classification of FRS are crucial, and a lack of early precise diagnosis can lead to a delay in any surgical or medical management. Since there are a variety of treatments for FRS, accurate identification of etiologic agents should be performed based on phenotypic and molecular methods.


Clinical signs, etiologic agents, fungal rhinosinusitis, invasive, noninvasive, predisposing factors

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