Cardiovascular implications of the COVID?19: Management of complications and drug safety concerns

Maliheh Hamidian, Ramin Ansari, Mohammad Mehdi Zarshenas, Farzaneh Foroughinia


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID?19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has rapidly spread worldwide and has been infected more than 219 million individuals with 4.55 millionĀ  eaths worldwide as of September 2021, causing a pandemic. Preexisting cardiovascular (CV) comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease seem to be associated with greater severity of infection, worse prognosis, and higher mortality. Moreover, COVID?19 can contribute to CV complications, including acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, acute coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolism, emphasizing the importance of precocious detection and implementation of optimal therapeutic strategies. This review provides an overview of evidence?based data of CV complications of COVID?19, focusing on their management strategies, as well as potential cardiac adverse effects and drug interactions, due to off?label and investigational drugs used for the treatment of COVID?19.


Adverse effects, coronavirus disease 2019, complications, disease management, heart

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