Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 2018. 23(7):J Res Med Sci 2018, 23:63 (26 July 2018).

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lipids: Insights into molecular mechanisms from persistence to virulence
Ciamak Ghazaei

Abstract


Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a causative agent of tuberculosis that causes deaths across the world. Te pathogen apart from causing disease manifestations can also enter into a phase of latency to re?emerge later. Among the various factors associated with the virulence of pathogen, the lipids composing the cell wall of the bacillus have drawn much interest among. Te unique composition of the cell wall composed of mycolic acid, glycolipids such as diacyltrehaloses, polyacyltrehalose, lipomannan, lipoarabinomannan (LAM), mannose?capped?LAM, sulfolipids, and trehalose?6,6’?dimycolate, all have been implicated in providing the pathogen an advantage in the host. Te pathogen also alters its  metabolism of fatty acids to survive the conditions in the host that is re?ected in an altered cell wall composition in terms of lipids. In addition, the lipid profle of the cell wall has been shown to modulate the immune
responses launched by the host, especially in the suppression, or  roduction of in?ammatory factors, cytokines, and phagocytic cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. Apart from M. tuberculosis, the paper also brie?y looks at the role of Mycobacterium bovis and its role in tuberculosis in humans along with its lipid profle of its cell wall. Tis review aims to  summarize the various lipids of the cell wall of M. tuberculosis along with their roles in enabling the pathogen to maintain its virulence to infect further humans and its persistence inside the host.



Keywords


Cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis, glycolipids and pathogenicity, lipids of cell wall, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, persistence, role of lipids in virulence

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