Aim: We sought the prevalence of food insecurity and whether cardiovascular risk markers and metabolic syndrome components are significantly different in categories of food insecurity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Materials and Methods: In this cross?sectional study, 520 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Kerman coronary artery disease risk study aged between 23 and 87 years (60.8 ± 11.4) who selected by one?stage cluster sampling were assigned into four groups of “food secure” and “mild,” “moderate,” and “severe” food insecure. Household food insecurity was assessed by a 9?item household food insecurity access scale questionnaire. Results: The prevalence of food security and mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity in patients with diabetes was 24.4%, 33.1%, 28.9%, and 13.6%, respectively. There was a significant difference among the food?secure/insecure sex groups (P = 0.001). The prevalence of food insecurity and risk factors such as total cholesterol, high low?density lipoprotein cholesterol, and visceral obesity in mild food?insecure females was significantly higher than males (P < 0.001, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). The fasting blood sugar significantly increased (P = 0.020) in diabetic females with food security than the other female groups. Diastolic blood pressure significantly increased (P = 0.028) in diabetic females with severe food insecurity than the other female groups. The glycosylated hemoglobin significantly increased (P = 0.013) in diabetic males with severe food insecurity than the other male groups. Food insecurity odds
ratio in females was 1.74 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–2.70), 2.39 (95% CI: 1.48–3.88), and 2.73 (95% CI: 1.49–5.01) times higher than in males for mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. onclusions: Food insecurity may deteriorate some cardiometabolic biomarkers in type 2 diabetes. Improving food security in patients with diabetes may help reduce cardiovascular disease.
Cardiovascular risk markers, food insecurity, Kerman coronary artery disease risk study, metabolic syndrome components, type 2 diabetes