Anxiety but not depression is associated with metabolic syndrome: The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

Hamed Akbari, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Hamid Aria, Alireza Gholami Garaei, Habib Zakeri


Background: Only a few studies have carried out to evaluate the association of depression and anxiety with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Te aim of this study was to investigate whether the depression and anxiety are associated with MetS and its di?erent components. Materials and Methods: Tis cross?sectional study forms part of the prospective Isfahan Cohort Study. A total of 470 participants were chosen. Anxiety and depression symptoms were measured using hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Te MetS was diagnosed according to the American Heart Association and National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. One?way analysis of variance and binary logistic regression were used. Results: Te mean age of participants was 55.7 ± 9.3. Te prevalence of MetS in female participants with symptoms of depression (P < 0.0001), concurrent anxiety and depression (P = 0.004), anxiety (P < 0.0001), and
asymptomatic individuals (P = 0.001) was signifcantly di?erent when compared to male participants. Moreover, the analysis showed that having anxiety symptoms is in a negative relationship with MetS (odds ratio [OR] = 0.31; 95% confdence interval [CI] = 0.12–0.78). In addition, with each 10?year increase in age, the probability of MetS will decrease 40% (OR = 0.59; 95%Cl = 0.53–0.72). Body mass index (OR = 1.29; 95%CI = 1.21–1.37), and gender (higher age for women) (OR = 0.34; 95%CI = 0.11–0.98) had positive relationship with MetS. Conclusion: Te study fndings revealed that the prevalence of MetS in patients with anxiety was lower than the healthy subjects, while no signifcant association was found between depression, concurrent depression, an anxiety with MetS.


Anxiety, depression, Iran, metabolic syndrome

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