The recurrence risk of genetic complex diseases

Mahdi Bijanzadeh


Complex inherited diseases affected by an interaction between collective effects of the genotype at one or multiple loci either to increase or to lower susceptibility to disease, combined with a variety of environmental exposures that may trigger, accelerate, exacerbate, or protect against the disease process. The new aspects of genetic techniques have been opened for diagnosis and analysis of inherited disorders. While appropriate Mendelian laws is applied to estimate the recurrence risk of single gene diseases, using empirical recurrence risks are the most important and available method to evaluate pedigree of complex (multifactorial), chromosomal, and unknown etiology disorders. Although, generally, empirical recurrent risks are not accurate, either because of the difference of gene frequencies and environmental factors among populations or heterogeneity of disease; using results of plenty family population studies, computerized estimating programs, genotyping technologies, and Genome?wide association studies (GWASs) of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), can make it possible nowadays to estimate these risks. The specific family situation and importance recurrence risks of some common complex genetic diseases will be presented in this review and some important multifactorial disorders’ recurrence risks will be summarized to help genetic counselors for supporting families and representing better view of genetic disorders.


Key words: Genetics counseling, pedigree, recurrence

Full Text: