Is type 2 diabetes mellitus in mechanically ventilated adult trauma patients potentially related to the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia?

Hadi Darvishi Khezri, Abbas Alipor, Amir Emami Zeydi, Abolfazl Firuzian, Ghahraman Mahmudi, Muloodi Omrani Nava


Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a type of lung infection that typically affects critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU). Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are considered to be more susceptible to several types of infections including community-acquired pneumonia. However, it is not clear whether T2DM is a risk factor for the development of VAP. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of VAP for diabetic and nondiabetic mechanically ventilated trauma patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a secondary analysis of a prospective observational study of the history of T2DM in the ICU over a period of 1 year at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Iran. A total of 186 critically ill trauma patients who required at least 48 h of MV were monitored for the occurrence of VAP by their clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS) until ICU discharge, VAP diagnosis, or death. Results: Forty-one of the 186 patients developed VAP. The median time from hospitalization to VAP was 29.09 days (95% CI: 26.27–31.9). The overall incidence of VAP was 18.82 cases per 1,000 days of intubation (95% CI: 13.86-25.57). Risk of VAP in diabetic patients was greater than nondiabetic patients after adjustments for other potential factors [hazard ratio (HR): 10.12 [95% confidence interval (CI): 5.1–20.2); P < 0.0001)]. Conclusion: The findings show that T2DM is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence of VAP in mechanically ventilated adult trauma patients.


Key words: Diabetes mellitus, intensive care unit (ICU), trauma, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)

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